Volume 1 Issue 4 Article 2

Utilization of Rice Straw as a Low-Cost Natural By-Product in Agriculture

Writer(s): Camilia El-dewany 1, Alaa Zaghloul 2, Fikry Awad 3,

In Egypt, rice (Oryza sativa) is a major crop in terms of total production and it is considered the third most important grain crop in all over the world behind wheat and corn. Rice production is associated with large quantities of straw, which traditionally have been removed by the practice of open field burning. However, burning of the agricultural residues especially in Egypt, particularly rice straw (about 3 million tons per year) lead to what is known locally as “Black Cloud” in the media. This work aims to document the problems take place from Rice straw burning like potentially harmful effects on people's health, especially for those with sensitive eyes and respiratory problems, environmental impacts represented by increasing of global methane emission rates from rice fields and solutions represented by best management practices should be applied for rice straw annually produced under national and international scales. 



Keyword(s): black cloud, Agricultural waste, environmental ecosystem and rice straw,

  • [1] IRRI (2010). International Rice Research Institute. Rice around the World. Annual report.
  • [2] Parr, J.F.; Papendick, R.I.; Hornick, S.B. and Meyer, R.E. (1992). Soil quality: Attributes and relationship to alternative and sustainable agriculture. Amer. J. Alternative Agric. 7: 5-11.
  • [3] Kim, S. and Dale, B.E. (2004). Global potential bioethanol production from wasted crops and crop residues. Biomass and Bioenergy 26: 361–375.
  • [4] Faveri, D.D.; Torre, P.; Perego, P., and Converti, A. (2004). Statistical investigation on the effects of starting xylose concentration and oxygen mass flow rate on xylitol production from rice straw hydrolyzate by response surface methodology. J. Food Eng. 65: 383–389.
  • [5] MOAC (2007). Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperative. Statistical information on Nepalese Agriculture, 2006/2007. Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Kathmandu, Nepal. Agri-Business Promotion and Statistics Division.
  • [6] Thailand Research Fund (2007). Policy Research on Renewable Energy Promotion and Energy Efficiency Improvement in Thailand Project - Final Report.
  • [7] Sabaa, M.F. and Sharaf, M.F. (2000). Egyptian policies for rice development. Cahiers Options Mediterranean's. 40: 25–36.
  • [8] Stahl, R. and Ramadan, A. (2007). Fuels and Chemicals from Rice Straw in Egypt. Institut für Technische Chemie and Atomic Energy Authority (AEA), National Centre for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control, 3-Ahmed El-Zomour St., Nasr City: 11762; P.O. Box 7551, Cairo, Egypt and Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Karlsruhe 2007.
  • [9] Abou Hussein, S.D. and Sawan, O.M. (2010). The Utilization of agricultural waste as one of the environmental issues in Egypt (A case study). J. Appl. Sci. 6:1116-1124.
  • [10] Hrynchuk, L. (1998). Rice straw diversion plan. In: McGuire, Terry (Ed.). California Air Resources Board, California, Pp.23. USA
  • [11] Buresh, R. and Sayre, K. (2007). Implications of Straw Removal on Soil Fertility and Sustainability, IRRI, LosBanõs, Philippines.
  • [12] Yang, S.; He, H.; Lu, S.; Chen, D. and Zhu, J. (2008). Quantification of Crop Residue Burning in the Field and its Influence on Ambient Air Quality in Suqian, China. Atmos. Environ. 42: 1961–1969.
  • [13] FAOSTAT (2011). Agricultural Database of Rice Production. Available at: {http://apps.fao.org/.}.
  • [14] Gadde, B.; Bonnet, S.; Menke, C. and Garivait, S. (2009). Air pollutant emissions from rice straw open field burning in India, Thailand and the Philippines. Environ. Pollut. 157: 1554–1558.
  • [15] Torigoe, K.; Hasegawa, S.; Numata, O.; Yazaki, S.; Matsunaga, M.; Boku, N.; Hiura, M. and Ino, H. (2000). Influence of emission from rice straw burning on bronchial asthma in children. Pediatrics International. 42: 143-150.
  • [16] Webster, R.K. (1998). Effect of alternative rice residue management practices on rice stem rot and aggregate sheath spot diseases. Agronomy Progress Report No. 264:49-55, University of California, Davis.
  • [17] Glissmann, K. and Conrad, R. (2000). Saccharolytic activity and its role as a limiting step in methane formation during the anaerobic degradation of rice straw in rice paddy soil. Biol. and Fert. of Soil. 35: 62-67.
  • [18] El-Guindy, S. and Risseeuw, I.A. (1987). Research on water management of rice fields in the Nile Delta, Egypt. ILRI (Inter. Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement/ILRI), publication. 41. P.O. Box 45, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands.
  • [19] Neue, H. (1993). Methane emission from rice fields: Wetland rice fields may make a major contribution to global warming. BioScience. 43: 466-73.
  • [20] Haywood, J. (2003). The eggs newsletter issue 4. Available at: (www.the-eggs.org).
  • [21] El-Askary, H. and Kafatos, M. )2008(. Dust storm and black cloud influence on aerosol optical properties over Cairo and the Greater Delta region, Egypt. Inter. J. of Remote Sensing. 29: 7199-7211.
  • [22] El-Metwally, M.; Alfaro, S.C.; AbdelWahab, M. and Chatenet, B. (2008). Aerosol characteristics over urban Cairo: Seasonal variations as retrieved from Sun photometer measurements. J. Geophys. Res. 113, D14219, doi:10.1029/2008JD009834.
  • [23] Fleishman, J. (2009). EGYPT Cairo’s hovering “Black Cloud”. Avilable online at: {http://latimesblogs. latimes.com/babylonbeyond/ 2009/10/ fires-burn-in-the-provinces-andmornings-break-smoky-in-the-cityits-harvest-time-the-rice-has-been-gathered-andfarmers.html}.
  • [24] Robaa, S. M. (2004). A study of ultraviolet solar radiation at Cairo urban area, Egypt. Solar Energy. 77: 251-259.
  • [25] Rosenfeld, D. (2000). Suppression of rain and snow by urban and industrial air pollution. Science. 287: 1793-1796. Rosenfeld, D. (2000). Suppression of rain and snow by urban and industrial air pollution. Science. 287: 1793-1796.
  • [26] IPCC (2006). Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories. Vol. 4 agriculture, forestry and other land use, Chapter 11: N2O emissions from managed soils, and CO2 emissions from lime and urea application. 54 pp.
  • [27] Wuebbles, D. J. and Hayhoe, K. (2002). Atmospheric methane and global change. Earth-Science Reviews. 57: 177-210.
  • [28] WHO (2006). World Health Organization. Air Quality Guidelines for Particulate Matter, Ozone,Nitrogen Diozide, and Sulfur Dioxide: Global Update 2005 –Summary of risk assessment.
  • [29] Marey, H.S.; Gille, J.C.; El-Askary, H.M. and El-Raey, M.E. (2011). Aerosol Climatology over Nile Delta based on MODIS, MISR and OMI satellite data. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 11:10449–10484.
  • [30] Mullaney, H. (2002). Technical, Environmental and Economic Feasibility of Bio-Oil in New Hampshire’s North Country. Durham, NH. University of New Hampshire. UNH Project No.14B316 UDKEIF.
  • [31] EERE (2008). Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The United States Department of Energy’s, USA. Available at: {www1.eere. energy.gov/biomass}.
  • [32] Ringer, M.; Putsche, V. and Scahill, J. (2006). Large-Scale Pyrolysis Oil Production: A Technology Assessment and Economic Analysis", Technical Report- NREL/TP-510-37779.
  • [33] Tewfik, R. Shadia; Sorour, M.H.; Abdelghani M.G.; Abulnour, Hala A. Talaat; Nihal M. El Defrawy; Farah, J.Y. and Abdou, I.K. (2011). Bio-oil from rice straw by-pyrolysis: Experimental and Techno-Economic Investigations. J. of Amer. Sci. 7:(2). Available at: { http:// www.americanscience.org} .
  • [34] Mendoza, T.C. and Samson, R. (1999). Strategies to avoid crop residue burning in the Philippine context. p. 13. “Inter. Conf. of Frostbite and Sun Burns”, Canadian International Initiatives Toward Mitigating Climate Change hosted by Inter. Program (IP) of the Canadian Environmental Network (CEN) and the Salvadorn Center for Appropriate Technology (CESTA) held on 24 April–May 2.
  • [35] Asari, N.; Ishihara, R.; Nakajima, Y.; Kimura, M. and Asakaw, S. (2007). Saccession and phylogenetic composition of eubacterial communities in rice straw during decomposition on surface paddy field soil. Soil Sci. and Pl. Nutr. 53: 56-65.
  • [36] Geisel, P. M., (2001). Compost in a Hurry. Compost in a Hurry University of California, Agriculture and neutral recourses. Publication No 8037. pp:1-4.
  • [37] El-Haggar, S. M.; Mounir, G. and Gennaro, L. (2004). Agricultural waste as an energy source in developing countries, a case study in Egypt on the utilization of agricultural waste through complexes. Inter. Centre for Sci. and High Technology (ICS).United Nations Industrial Development organization (UNODO). Pp:1-10.
  • [38] A Grower,s Guide (1999). Compost production and unitization. California Department of food and Agriculture, University of California. USA. Pp:1-17.
  • [39] Tuomela, M.; Vikman, M.; Hatakka, A. and Itavaara, M. (2000). Biodegradation of lignin in a compost environment: a review. Bioreso. Technol. 72: 169–83.
  • [40] El-Saied, H.: Camilia, Y. El-Dewiny: Altaf, H. Basta and El-Hady, O. (2011). Evaluation of rice straw based hydrogel as preserving agents for fertilizers in sandy soil. Egypt. J. of Soil Sci.51:129-146.
  • [41] Takahashi, Z.; Takahashi, S. and Oka, N. (1978). Rice-straw compost: a new formula. The Mushroom Journal. 71: 348-351.
  • [42] Daba, A.S.; Kabeil, S.S.; William, A.B. and El-Saadani, M.A. (2008). Production of mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) in Egypt as a source of nutritional and medicinal food. World J. Agric. Sci. 4: 630-634.
  • [43] Abdel-Satar, M.A. (2004). Using compacted rice straw bales in cultivated some fruits and vegetable crops. Ministry of Agriculture, Egyptian - German integrated pest management project. (in Arabic).
  • [44] Tengerdy, R.P. and Szakacs, G. (2003). Bioconversion of lingo-cellulose in solid substrate fermentation. Biochemical Engineering Journal 13: 169–17.
  • [45] Sundstol F and E.C. Owen, E.C. (1984). Straw and Other Fibrous By products as Feed. (Editors: F Sundstol and E C Owen) Elsevier: Amersterdam.
  • [46] RAKTA. (2009). Company Description; Manufacturing, Products, Clients, etc. Web pages. Available at: {www.rakta eg.com/enindex-php}.
  • [47] El-Samni, T. M. (2003). Feasibility of Rice Straw as in Concrete Manufacture. Master Thesis, Minofiya University, Egypt.
  • [48] Kargbo, F.R.; Xing, J. and Zhang, Y. (2009). Pretreatment for energy use of rice straw: A review. African J. Agric. Res. 4: 1560-1565. Available online at {http://www.academicjournals.org/AJAR}.
  • [49] Baxter, L.; Miles, T.R. Jr.; Miles, T.R. and Jenkins, B.M. (1996). Alkali disposition found in biomass boilers.
  • [50] Alaa El-Din, M.N.; Rizk, I.; El-Lakkni, H.; Abdel-Nabey, M.; El Sabbah, M. and El- Shimi, S.A. (1984). Rural energy in Egypt, A survey of resources and domestic needs. Inter. Cong. state of the art on biogas technology, transfer and diffusion, NRC, Cairo, Egypt.
  • [51] Xiong XQ, Liao HD, Ma JS, Liu XM, Zhang LY, Shi XW, (2014). Isolation of a rice endophytic bacterium, Pantoea sp. Sd-1, with ligninolytic activity and characterization of its rice straw degradation ability. Lett Appl Microbiol 2014;58: 123–129.

SOURCE SHOW

Citation type: APA

Camilia El-dewany, Alaa Zaghloul, Fikry Awad. (2018). Utilization of Rice Straw as a Low-Cost Natural By-Product in Agriculture. Ulusal Çevre Bilimleri Araştırma Dergisi, 1 ( 4 ) , 91-102. http://ijepem.com/volume-1/issue-4/article-2/

Citation type: BibTex

@article{2018, title={Utilization of Rice Straw as a Low-Cost Natural By-Product in Agriculture}, volume={1}, number={4}, publisher={International Journal of Environmental Pollution and Environmental Modelling}, author={Camilia El-dewany, Alaa Zaghloul, Fikry Awad}, year={2018}, pages={91-102} }

Citation type: MLA

Camilia El-dewany, Alaa Zaghloul, Fikry Awad. Utilization of Rice Straw as a Low-Cost Natural By-Product in Agriculture. no. 1 International Journal of Environmental Pollution and Environmental Modelling, (2018), pp. 91-102.