Commercial Bio- products from Algal Biomass
Keywords:Algal nutrition, culturing, Photo bioreactor, biomass, harvesting, bio- products
Most algae are fundamentally autotrophic (obtaining all their materials from inorganic sources) and photosynthetic generating complex carbon compounds from carbon dioxide and light energy. Some algae have become secondarily heterotrophic, taking up complex organic molecules by organotrophy or heterotrophy, but still retaining fundamental genetic affinities with their photosynthetic relatives. They organisms included both prokaryotes (cells lacking a membrane bound nucleus) and eukaryotes (cells with a nucleus plus typical membrane-bound organelles). They are abundantly found in environmental extremes of temperature, pH, salt concentration, and radiation. The cultivation of algae can make an important contribution to the transition to a more sustainable society or bio based economy. Algae are not only suitable for environmentally friendly production of many commodities, but also for the use of waste streams. They grow excellent on e.g. carbon dioxide from flue gases, residual water of agro-industrial companies and even diluted digestate from manure. In return they produce valuable raw materials. Algae recycle nutrients that thus remain available in the nutrient cycle, instead of being wasted and pollute the water. The algal cell contains many useful substances and microalgae are cultivated increasingly for the production of valuable raw materials such as oil, proteins, starch, agar, carrageenan, Alginate, pigments (e.g., beta-carotene) and different pharmaceutical products so that the commercial applications of these materials are numerous.
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